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OLI 



HOW TO MAKE IT 



FOUCHJE3R. 



VIOLIN VARNISH 

AND 

HOW TO MAKE IT. 



PRINTED BV J. H. LAVENDER AND CO., 
2, DUNCAN TERRACE, CITY ROAD, LONDON, N. 



VIOLIN VARNISH 



HOW TO MAKE IT 



G. FOUCHER, SENIOR. 



MANY YEARS HON. SEC. COLLEGE OF VIOLINISTS. 

AUTHOR OF "REPAIRING, RESTORING AND ADJUSTMENT 

OF THE VIOLIN." 

EDITED BY 

EDGAR PENNING. 
PRICE NETT. 

*- - 

LONDON : 

G. FOUCHER & SONS, 

226, KING STREET, W. 
1911. 



PREFACE. 

WITH the object of assisting in the dis- 
covery of a Varnish that will equal in 
quality and beauty that of the great masters 
of the Middle Ages, I have, with the kind 
assistance of Mr. EDGAR PENNING, en- 
deavoured, in the following chapters, to 
describe, in the simplest manner possible, 
the properties and effects of the principal 
components of Varnish and the best means 
of employing them. 

G. FOUCHER, SENR. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS .. i 



CHAPTER II. 

VARNISH, ITS USES AND EFFECTS .. .. 4 

CHAPTER III. 

OILS VARIOUS PROPERTIES LINSEED OIL 
SICCATIVE OILS ESSENTIAL OILS . . . . 9 

CHAPTER IV. 
ALCOHOLS 13 

CHAPTER V. 

DRY SUBSTANCES FORMING THE BASIS OF 
VARNISH GUMS ROSINS How THEY ARE 
EXTRACTED DEGREE OF HARDNESS OF 
GUMS AND ROSINS SANDARACH MASTIC 
DAMMAR COPALS ANIME BENZOIN 
SHELLAC DRAGON'S BLOOD TURPENTINE 
ELEMI, AMBER AND ITS COMPOSITION .. 16 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 
COLOURING MATTER 24 

CHAPTER VII. 

ELEMENTARY NOTES ON VARNISH MAKING AND 
VARNISHING 26 

CHAPTER VIII. 

EXAMPLES OF VARNISH SPIRIT OILS AMBER 
SPIRIT AMBER OIL AMBER AND TURPEN- 
TINE VARNISH FOR Bows .. .. ..29 



VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO 
MAKE IT. 



CHAPTER I. 



A LTHOUGH many valuable and inter- 
1\. esting works have been written on the 
manufacture, repair, adjustment, music and 
technique of the violin, very few writers have 
attempted to deal, even in the most elementary 
fashion, with the important and absorbing 
subject of varnishing. 

Varnish, from the earliest history of the 
art, has always been an essential element in 
the manufacture of the violin, and the famous 
craftsmen of the past whose instruments are 
to-day so highly valued for the beauty and 



2 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

richness of their tone owed much of their 
success to the wonderful qualities possessed 
by the varnish they employed. 

The old Cremonese workers, who attained 
the highest point of perfection in this direction, 
undoubtedly discovered their secret by a 
fortunate accident, and it is surprising that, 
though centuries have passed, no one has 
since been able to produce a varnish that 
will in any way compare with that of those 
great masters of old. 

Many attempts have been made to remedy 
this, and much scientific knowledge has been 
brought to bear on the subject without much 
success, and it is with the object of affording 
to the student a guide and compendium to 
work upon, that I have ventured to offer this 
little book to his consideration, and if only a 
small step in this direction is gained, my 
desire to assist in the restoration of Violin 
Varnish to its former perfection will have 
been amply rewarded. 

To obtain an Ideal Varnish, the absolutely 
correct proportioning of the materials used 
in its composition must be ascertained. 

In the following chapters I have given 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 3 

several recipes for the manufacture of 
Varnish, and it is possible by altering and 
improving on these, and by continually ex- 
perimenting, to chance upon a combination 
that will lead to the discovery of a Varnish 
that will equal in every way the beautiful 
work of the great masters. 

The above-mentioned recipes will also be 
of service to the maker whether amateur 
or professional who experiences any diffi- 
culty in procuring a Varnish that completely 
meets with his requirements. 

He will find it far more satisfactory and 
economical to make it himself, to his own 
taste, than by purchasing it ready made. 



B2 



VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 



CHAPTER II. 

Varnish, its Uses and Effects. 

T TARNISH, as applied to musical instru- 
V ments, is primarily intended to be a 
means of preservation. 

If one of those beautiful masterpieces of 
the early Italian period could have reached 
us to-day without having been varnished, it 
would be in such a lamentable condition of 
decay as to render it completely unfit for use. 

All the magnificent workmanship and 
design would have been obliterated by the 
accumulated dirt of many years, and it would 
be valueless either as a musical instrument 
or as an object of art. 

Therefore, the first care of those making a 
varnish must be to make certain of its ability 
to act as a preservative. There are two 
kinds of varnish in general use, one being 
made from oil and the other from spirit. 



VARNISH, ITS USES AND EFFECTS 5 

The only varnish that will effect the pur- 
pose of preservation is one that has oil as its 
basis. 

All varnishes made from spirit leave on the 
wood a deposit of rosins of varying degrees 
of hardness. 

These deposits, if soft, are soon worn away 
by the least friction and even if left un- 
touched will, in time, disappear by the process 
of natural disintegration, and will leave the 
instrument itself bare and disfigured. Our 
attention must then be especially confined to 
oil varnishes. 

In this varnish the opposite effect is 
obtained, the gums and rosins are dissolved 
in the oil and the whole forms a siccative 
substance which, to a considerable extent, 
assimilates to the superficial part of the 
instrument, and the oil gradually drying 
leaves the rest amalgamated with the wood 
which it covers, and yet at the same time 
forms a part of. 

Although to act as a preservative is the 
chief function of varnish there are several 
other properties it must possess if it is to be 
perfect. 



6 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

Amongst these are elasticity, transparency, 
and the ability to improve the tone of the 
instrument. 

Elasticity is an important essential which 
must be carefully considered. 

A good varnish must, in spite of its 
adhesive character, allow the wood to vibrate 
freely and should itself vibrate as an integral 
part of the instrument, and it should not in 
any way affect the tone possessed by the 
violin previous to its having been varnished. 

It will be seen that if the varnish does not 
lend itself readily to these conditions and is 
not elastic but remains hard, it will of 
necessity tighten upon and compress the 
instrument, thus rendering the proper pro- 
duction of the sound difficult. 

Again, if the varnish does not expand and 
contract in accordance with the expansion 
and contraction of the violin, it will crack 
and so completely spoil the work whose 
beauty it should enhance. 

Transparency, though not quite so impor- 
tant as elasticity, is yet another very necessary 
quality. An opaque varnish as can be well 
imagined would be unsightly and absurd. 



VARNISH, ITS USES AND EFFECTS 7 

If varnish were not transparent, all artistic 
workmanship would be unnecessary and use- 
less as it could not be seen, and all the 
beauties in the grain of the wood would be 
effectually disguised. 

A good varnish has a distinct effect in the 
improvement of the tone of a violin. 

That mellowness and richness which is 
always associated with violins of very old 
manufacture largely depends on the excellence 
of its varnish. 

This brings us back to the knowledge 
possessed by the old makers, which enabled 
them to produce such wonderful varnish and 
how it came to be lost. 

Much controversy and discussion has been 
centred on this subject, which has many 
curious and interesting features. 

It was probably not a secret at one time, 
but each maker in his endeavour to surpass 
his rival tried to improve upon what we 
recognise now to have been as near perfection 
as possible, so that instead of attaining the 
ideal they gradually fell away from their 
high standard until the original process has 
been buried in the innumerable and vain 



8 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

attempts to supersede the first and most 
successful efforts. 

Others again have from a purely mercenary 
motive used such materials in the com- 
position of their varnish that were not of 
the best quality, and which, in the course of 
time, have deteriorated to such an extent that 
at the present time varnishes are much below 
the standard set by the examples left us by 
the great masters of other days. 



OILS 



CHAPTER III. 

Oils. 

AMONG their many and varied proper- 
ties, oils have the capacity of marking 
paper in a greasy fashion, different oils doing 
so in varying degree of persistence. In this 
manner we are able to distinguish broadly 
between oils and the kind known as essential 
oils. 

There is another class, which is not much 
more than a modification of the first 
namely, Siccative oils. 

The name Siccative is given to a certain 
class of oils which are produced by other 
oils coming into contact with air and, by 
absorbing the oxygen, acquire the property 
of drying rapidly. 

Linseed oil is naturally siccative, but 
the process of dessication is exceedingly 
slow, and commercially the property is of 
not much value. 



IO VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

Chemistry has, however, been called into 
operation, and, by various processes, oil can 
be rendered siccative in a very short time, 
and so enables us to make use of it in the 
manufacture of varnish. 

Linseed oil is not soluble in water, very 
slightly in alcohol, but can be dissolved in 
ether and essential oils. 

If prepared by the cold process it is a 
light yellow colour, and if prepared by heat 
it is brown yellow. 

In common oil, there is often a solution of 
oils of resin, and such oils must never be 
employed if good results are to be obtained. 

The quality of oil depends completely on the 
nature of the seed from which it is extracted. 

A good oil is very liquid and transparent, 
and is practically odourless. 

Viscous and strong smelling oils are the 
result of using seeds of inferior quality, or 
those not fully matured. 

Oils as usually obtained in the trade are 
seldom pure, they generally contain colouring 
matter, and are otherwise adulterated, there- 
fore only those of the very best quality must 
be used. 



OILS II 

When oil has been kept for a long period 
it loses many of its impurities, and when 
buying it always enquire as to the age, as the 
older it is the better. 

With the aid of chemistry we are able to 
render oil siccative in a very short time. 
The process need not be entered into fully at 
present, but the most usual method is to 
heat it in the presence of various metallic 
oxydes. 

The mere fact of boiling oil will to a cer- 
tain extent make it siccative, but if boiled 
together with some litharge it will become 
more siccative still, while similar treatment 
with oxide of manganese will impart a high 
degree of siccativity to the oil. 

The oils in which oxygen is most inti- 
mately combined, in which the admixture of 
metallic oxides dissolved therein is the most 
perfect, and which contain the smallest 
amount of moisture, are the only ones that 
should be used for the purpose of making 
varnish, as the success of the varnish depends 
chiefly on the quality of the oil in its com- 
position. 

The distinctive character of Essential Oils 



12 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

is that while it will mark a piece of paper in 
a greasy fashion, the mark is not permanent, 
but will in a certain time entirely disappear, 
and, under the influence of heat, disappear 
more rapidly. 

They have the property, as have certain 
other oils, of becoming solidified and leaving 
a deposit of rosin. 

Technically, there are many varieties of 
these oils, which are all duly classified, but 
for our purpose we can divide them into two 
broad classes those that remain liquid and 
those that can be solidified in the form of 
crystals. 

They are hardly soluble in water, though 
they impart to it its odour. 



NOTE. I have throughout used the word drying, 
because it is the usual expression. As a matter 
of fact oil does not dry at all, but becomes 
solid by contact with the oxygen in the air, and 
clings permanently to the surface to which it is 
applied. 



ALCOHOL 13 



CHAPTER IV. 

Alcohol. 

IN the previous chapters I have dwelt 
rather emphatically on the superiority 
of oil varnish as compared with spirit 
varnish. 

However, no work on Varnish would be 
complete without some reference to alcohol. 

Alcohol is a produce composed of carbon, 
hydrogen and oxygen ; it is usually diluted 
with water in various quantities, by which 
its strength is determined. 

Alcohol is or can be extracted from an 
innumerable variety of materials, in fact, 
anything containing sugar in any proportion 
can, by the process of fermentation, be used 
for the production. 

The materials most usually employed are 
wines, roots, seed, etc. Alcohol is seldom 



14 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

obtained pure for numerous reasons, the 
principal being that it absorbs with great 
avidity the moisture contained in the atmos- 
phere. It also contains a proportion of 
essential oils. 

The chief characteristics of alcohol, when 
pure, are its powerful, pungent odour, and 
its caustic action on organic tissue. 

It is a very volatile liquid, and colourless 
in appearance. 

It readily dissolves such substances as 
rosins, gums, etc. Hence it is extensively 
employed in the manufacture of varnish. 

The great number of uses industry now 
make of alcohol has enabled the manufacturer 
to produce alcohol on a large scale. 

Owing to the prohibitive price reached by 
spirits of wine, scientific research was 
brought to bear on the subject, and many 
discoveries were made, by which alcohol is 
now no longer extracted exclusively from 
spirits of wine. The most usual substitute 
to spirit of wine is wood, from which 
methylated spirit is extracted. This spirit 
of wood (methylated), when of good quality, 
is often used by varnish makers, although it 



ALCOHOL 15 

contains, in common with all other spirits, a 
certain amount of essential oils, ether, and 
other alcohols. 

It is therefore advisable, when using 
alcohol, to procure the best quality obtain- 
able, and if necessary as a precaution, to 
purify it further by the extraction of as 
much of the moisture and essential oils as 
possible. 



l6 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 



CHAFER V. 

Dry Substances forming the basis 
of Varnish. 

GUMS are as a general rule easily 
dissolved in water. 

Gum- Resin, which is a mixture of gums 
and resins with the addition of volatile oils, 
salts and water is insoluble in water. 
Gums are derived from vegetables of 
numerous kinds. 

The product of each plant enables us to 
distinguish the variety. Rosins are also 
obtained from vegetables, and in such quan- 
tities that the manufacture has developed 
into a large and increasing industry. 

There are two methods of extracting rosin 
from plants. 

One way is simply by collecting the 
natural secretion, and the other by provoking 
such secretion by making incisions in the 
tree at certain periods of the year. 

Rosins when pure are usually without 



DRY SUBSTANCES 17 

taste or odour white, yellow, or brown in 
colour. They are insoluble in water but can 
be dissolved to a certain extent in alcohol, 
ether and various oils. Oxygen has not 
much effect on them with the exception of 
the copals. 

It is very difficult to obtain a pure rosin, 
it is nearly always a mixture of different 
rosins, each having separate properties. 

One great difficulty to be met with in 
the making of varnish is that rosins are not 
always of the same degree of hardness. 

This applies to such an extent that various 
rosins are classified under two heads, namely, 
hard and tender. 

Under the heading of hard we have copal, 
shellac and amber. The name tender is 
given to such rosins as sandarach, mastic 
and dammar. 

But there are some copals which are 
neither hard nor tender, but are what might 
be termed semi-hard. It is difficult in spite 
of these descriptions to obtain in the trade 
an article that will correspond accurately to 
the various requirements that may be needed. 

GUM ARABIC. There are numerous varie- 

c 



iS VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

ties of this gum, the distinctive character of 
which is its solubility in water and non- 
solubility in alcohol. It is to be found in 
Africa, India and Australia. 

It is extracted from the different species 
of Acacia, but many fruit trees produce 
similar gums. 

ROSINS Copals represent a great number 
of rosins which vary very much in constitu- 
tion. Anime is but a variety of rosin, and 
dammar is also but a series of similar pro- 
ducts. Copal is much employed in the 
manufacture of all kinds of varnish. It 
is derived from certain vegetables grown 
principally in Africa, and as they are sent 
to us mixed indiscriminately it is with 
great difficulty that the manufacturer can 
distinguish between them, consequently they 
can seldom repeat a varnish identically from 
two deliveries of rosins. 

It is also obtained in small quantities from 
India, America and Australia. 

It is a hard substance which, after being 
subjected to the process of melting, becomes 
partially soluble in spirit and to a higher 
degree in ether and essence of turpentine. 



DRY SUBSTANCES IQ 

Correctly speaking it is not a pure rosin, 
but a mixture of rosins each having separate 
degrees of solubility. 

It also contains some oils. 
Hard copals will melt at 350 centigrade. 
Semi-hard ,, ,, 150 
Tender 100 

Hard copals mostly come from Zanzibar. 
Those known as animes reach us from 
Bombay and also Madagascar. The semi- 
hard are obtained from Africa and reach us 
in different forms. Those coming from 
Angora are in the form of reddish balls. 

Those from Benguela (Africa) are of two 
different kinds, one yellow in colour and of a 
flat shape similar to a shell, and the other of 
a grey colour and is sometimes called African 
gum. Copal from Sierra Leone is white and 
elastic and is especially adapted to be mixed 
with other varieties in the manufacture of 
varnish. Asia supplies us with many copals 
but these are not genuine Asiatic products, 
but are sent from Africa, mixed in Asia and 
from thence exported to Europe. 

The real copals of Asia are divided, as are 

the others, into hard and tender. The best 

c 2 



2O VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

African copals are the hardest, they much 
resembling amber. They are easily dis- 
tinguished from it, however, as they will 
readily melt if brought into contact with the 
flame of a candle. 

There are many kinds, the following being 
the best known: Zanzibar, Madagascar, 
Cape of Good Hope, Sierra Leone, Congo, 
and Angora. The solubility of copals has 
been mentioned before when describing the 
rosins. They are a mixture of various 
matters of similar constitution, but which 
differ in several essential points, notably by 
the variations in the degree of solubility. 

Certain other bodies mixed with the rosin 
will greatly facilitate their dissolution in 
alcohol, camphor and ammonia being gener- 
ally used for this purpose. The process is 
very gradual, but camphor is extensively 
employed by most makers. 

ANIME. This copal is the produce of 
America, Brazil and Cayenne. It is very 
hard, but readily dissolves in alcohol. 

DAMMAR. This comes from Australia and 
New Zealand, is partly soluble in alcohol 
but not completely so by the cold process. 



DRY SUBSTANCES 21 

It can, however, be entirely dissolved in 
boiling alcohol and essential oils. It is 
one of the most' tender of copals. It is also 
found in Batavia, and this kind is favoured 
by many on account of the whiteness of its 
colour. 

GUM BENZOIN. This is a compound of 
many kinds of rosins, some acids, and a 
certain amount of essential oils. It is easily 
dissolved in alcohol. The best qualities are 
obtained from Siam. 

SHELLAC. This is a rosin which differs in 
every respect from any other kind. It is 
somewhat similar to the cochineal, it being 
the produce of an insect that lives on certain 
plants. It is soluble in alcohol only, to 
which it gives its colour. From it, is made 
the French polish which is mostly used in 
the furniture trade. 

MASTIC. There are two sorts of mastic, 
that in tears being the purest and best. It 
comes from Africa, and is partly soluble in 
alcohol and completely so in ether and 
essence of turpentine. Mastic is used in all 
varnishes to render them pliable and to 
make them dry slowly. 



22 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

SANDARACH. This is a product of Algeria 
and Morocco. It is quite soluble in alcohol 
and essence of turpentine and is extensively 
employed in the composition of spirit 
varnishes. 

DRAGON'S BLOOD is procured from India, 
Ceylon and America. It is soluble in 
alcohol, ether and oils. It imparts to its 
solvent a rich blood red colour. 

AMBER. This is a resinous fossil and is 
found in many countries. It is generally 
understood to be the petrified remains of 
certain trees that are now extinct. 

It is hard, yellow in colour and transparent. 

Its composition is complex consisting of 
three different kinds of rosins, some essential 
oils and a small quantity of mineral matter. 

In its natural state it is not soluble in alcohol 
nor essence of turpentine nor essential oils. 

It can, however, be dissolved by the 
following process. 

Place some in a clean earthenware vessel 
and heat it gradually, when melted pour on 
to a marble slab, when it becomes hard again 
reduce it to powder. 

It can then be readily dissolved in spirit, 



DRY SUBSTANCES 23 

essence of turpentine and also in all the oils 
extracted by the distillation of tar. 

This method is very old and can be applied 
to many hard rosins not soluble in their 
natural state. 

Great care must be taken not to apply the 
heat too long or too fiercely, otherwise it will 
burn and so spoil the colour and deprive it 
of its properties. 

Amber is much used in the manufacture 
of the most durable varnishes, particularly 
that used by painters and decorators. 

TURPENTINE. This is an aleo rosin and is 
the produce of certain plants of the coniferae 
family. It contains varying proportions of 
essential oils. 

The commonest type is the most siccative, 
and by the addition of one part to sixteen of 
magnesia it will become hard. 

It is completely soluble in alcohol. Another 
variety, Venice turpentine, is not siccative 
but easily dissolved in spirit. 

It is a mixture of essential oils and rosins. 

ELEMI. Elemi may be classed as a rosin. 
It is obtained from Brazil and Mexico. It 
is partially soluble in alcohol, water or ether. 



24 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 



CHAPTER VI. 
Colouring Matter. 

r T~ % HERE are two important qualities 
.1 which the matter used in colouring 
must possess. 

These are durability and solubility. The 
necessity of durability is obvious, and 
solubility is essential in order that the 
varnish may retain its full transparency. 

Colouring matter that is not completely 
dissolved merely renders the varnish a mix- 
ture that has neither transparency nor beauty. 

Many of the gums and rosins used give a 
certain amount of colour to its solvent, hence 
care must be taken not to add to a varnish a 
colour that does not naturally match with 
the original appearance, except in such cases 
where it is desired to obtain a special hue. 



COLOURING MATTER 25 

It is advisable to dissolve each colouring 
substance in advance in as strong a solution 
as possible, and add it to the vehicle you 
wish to use in such quantities as are required. 

The following colouring matters can be 
used separately to give a plain colour, or 
mixed to suit individual tastes : 

For yellow colour, use 
Saffron. 
Cur'cuma. 
Quercitron. 
Fustic wood, 
etc., etc. 

For red colour, use 

Dragon's blood. 
Carthamine. 
Alazarius garancine, 
etc., etc. 

For red brown, use 
Cochineal. 
Sandal wood, 
etc. etc. 



26 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 



CHAPTER VII. 
Elementary Notes on Varnishing. 

ALWAYS, before varnishing, apply a 
coat of a substance that will leave 
after dessication a colourless surface of rosin. 

If your oil varnish dries too quickly, add 
more oil. 

To make your varnish more siccative, add 
more rosin or gum to it. 

By the addition of a proportion of essence 
of turpentine, a new produce will be obtained 
that will dry very rapidly. 

To keep brushes in good order wash them 
carefully after using in a little turpentine or 
methylated spirit, according to the varnish 
you have been using. 

After having prepared your instrument for 
varnishing, proceed as follows : Place in a 
saucer a sufficient quantity of varnish to 
give a complete coat. Use a flat brush 
about i in. wide, and cover the instrument 



ELEMENTARY NOTES ON VARNISHING 27 

quickly, evenly and very thinly. When 
quite dry proceed with the second coat, and 
so on until you have obtained the depth of 
varnish and colour you require. 

Always work in a dry room free from dust. 

In winter the room should be warmed. 

Spirit varnish must be very thin to be 
applied easily ; hence, to acquire body and 
colour, 6 to 12 coats are necessary. 

If each coating is polished before adding 
the next, an extra translucid varnish will be 
obtained. 

To polish spirit varnish, use raw oil and 
finest Tripoli powder. 

To polish oil varnish use water and finest 
pumice powder. 

Always filter the varnish ; this can easily 
be done with wool or fine cloth. 

All gums used must be pure, and it is 
advisable to clean them before dissolving. 

Add to the gum to be dissolved a small 
quantity of broken, not powdered, glass. 
The glass will get mixed with the gums and 
prevent it forming a solid mass, thus 
enabling the solvent to act more promptly. 
Two coats of oil varnish are sufficient. 



28 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

To colour essence of turpentine dissolve in 
it some dragon's blood, etc. 

Be very careful in the manipulation of the 
various ingredients when they have to be 
heated. Accidents will occur if proper care 
is not taken. Whenever possible the heating 
should be done out of doors. 

Always heat liquids in a water bath. 

Varnishes made with essence of turpentine 
are distinguishable by their fluidity, great 
brilliancy and quick drying qualities, but 
they are not very durable. 

By the addition of siccative oil to them, 
the drying qualities are reduced, but greater 
durability is obtained. 

Oil varnish forms a solid mass, and its 
clinging capacity is unequalled. 

Anilyne dyes are not fast colours. 



VARIOUS KINDS OF VARNISH 2g 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Examples of various kinds of 
Varnish. 

SPIRIT VARNISH. 

No. i. 

Fill a bottle with shellac, broken glass and 
spirit in equal proportions. Roll and shake 
bottle from time to time during 12 hours. 
Boil in hot water bath. Dilute to substance 
of thin glue, and filter on wool. The natural 
colour will be that of the shellac. Alter to 
taste by the addition of coloured spirit. 

SPIRIT VARNISH. 
No. 2. 

Dissolve in Alcohol 5 oz. Sandarach. 
5 Mastic. 
\ Camphor. 
(Add broken glass) 

Roll and shake from time to time during 
24 hours. Heat in hot water bath. Dilute 
and colour to requirements. 



30 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

SPIRIT VARNISH. 

No. 3. 
Dissolve in alcohol 6 oz. Shellac. 

24 Sandarach. 
3 Mastic in tears. 
3 Elemi. 
6 Turpentine. 
Add some broken glass 
Proceed as for No. 2. 

SPIRIT VARNISH. 

No. 4 . 
Dissolve in alcohol 5 oz. Mastic. 

5 .Sandarach. 
i Elemi. 
i ,, Anime. 
Add broken glass 
Proceed as for Example No. 2. 

SPIRIT VARNISH. 

No. 5. 

Dissolve 2 oz. turpentine in i^ pint of spirit. 
Add broken glass. 
2 oz. Shellac. 
8 Sandarach. 
i Mastic, 
i Elemi. 
Proceed as explained for Example No. 2. 



VARIOUS KINDS OF VARNISH 31 

AMBER SPIRIT VARNISH. 
No. 6. 

Dissolve in alcohol 4 oz. Sandarach. 

4 Prepared Amber. 

1 Mastic. 
Add broken glass 

Proceed as for Example No. 2. 
After dissolution of the rosins add i oz. of 
turpentine (liquid). 

AMBER AND TURPENTINE VARNISH. 
No. 7. 

Place in a bottle 4 oz. Sandarach. 
4 Mastic. 
4 Anime. 

2 ,, Prepared Amber, 
and some broken glass. 

Bring gently to melting point (in hot water 
bath). When melted add 12 oz. of turpen- 
tine (liquid). Continue to heat until com- 
pletely dissolved. 

AMBER OIL VARNISH. 
No. 8. 

4oz. prepared amber broken in small pieces. 

Place these in an iron saucepan. Pour on 
it a spoonful of essence of turpentine. Cover 
saucepan with lid. Place on slow fire. In 
about fifteen minutes the amber will be 
melted. Take saucepan off the fire. Let it 
cool a little and add 2 oz. drying oil. Mix 
well and thoroughly. Add 4 oz. essence of 
turpentine which may have been coloured. 



32 VIOLIN VARNISH AND HOW TO MAKE IT 

AMBER OIL VARNISH. 

No. 9. 

1 6 oz. prepared amber. 
8 oil (siccative). 
1 6 ,, essence of turpentine. 

Mix amber with oil. Melt by slow fire as 
per example No. 8. When dissolution com- 
plete add essence of turpentine. 

AMBER OIL VARNISH. 

No. 10. 

1 6 oz. prepared amber. 
8 ,, oil (siccative). 
16 ,, essence of turpentine. 

Mix amber with turpentine as explained in 
example No. 8. Melt by slow heat. When 
dissolution complete add the oil. 

OIL VARNISH. 
No. ii. 

Melt on fire as explained in example No. 8. 

15 oz. copal. 

Add to it 8 oz. oil (siccative). 
Dilute with 24 oz. essence of turpentine. 

VARNISH FOR Bows. 

No. 12. 
Dissolve 12 oz. Shellac. 

3 Dragon's Blood. 
3 Copal, 
in cne pint spirit. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



VARNISH SPECIALISTS. 



JEAN BAPTISTE VUILLAUME'S 
VARN I SH 

(ANY COLOUR) 
PER BOTTLE ... ... 21/- 



Gr. FOUCHER & SONS, 



Violin 

and Experts, . 

226, KING STREET, LONDON, W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



WILL APPEAR SHORTLY. 

A 

New, Revised and Concise Edition 

- OF 

Repairing, Restoring 

and Adjustment 

- OF - 

THE VIOLIN 



BY 



G. FOUCHER Senr. 



Messrs. G. FOUCHER & SONS, 

226, KING STREET, LONDON, W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Y I O L r 1ST S 

BY 

GEORGES H. ROUGHER, 

5 : 5 : O. 
VIOLINS 

BY 

FELIX & GEORGES H. ROUGHER, 
: 12 : O. 



VIOLONCELLOS 

BY 

FELIX FOUCHER, 
: O : O. 



Messrs. OODCHER& SONS, 

226, King Street, 
, inr. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Amongst the many Testimonials we 
have received, we may mention 
those of ... 

Senor Pablo Sarasate. 
Signer Guido Papini. 
. Polonaski, Esq. 



G. FOUCHER & SONS, 

Violin 1VI alters, 

226, King Street, LONDON, W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Perfection in Violin Making 
MEANS 

FINE 



TONE. 



THE FELIX FOUCHER VIOLINS 

ARE 

PERFECT. 
JPrioe J38 8s. 

Terms and full particulars free on application, 



G. FOUCHER & SONS, 

, King Street, LONDON, W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



REPAIRS 



ALL KINDS OF REPAIRS 



FOR 



VIOLINS, 

VIOLAS, 
VIOLONCELLOS. 



Estimates Fzee. 



SPECIAL TERMS TO THE TRADE. 



G. FOUCHER & SONS, 

226, King Street, LONDON, W. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



W. H. PALMER & CO., Ltd. 

(ESTABLISHED 1805), 
MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KINDS OF 

VARNISHES, 

POLISHES, 

STAINS. 



AND 



FINEST QUALITY 

OILS, GUMS, GLUES, BRUSHES, etc. 



AMBER OIL VARNISH, PALE OR DARK, 

i/-, 2/6, 5/- per Bottle. 



Colourless, Red, Brown or Yellow? 
IfiSTJRUmBfiT VANISH 

2/6 and 5/- per Bottle. 

WE SUPPLY ALL MATERIALS MENTIONED 

IN THIS WORK. 
VARNISHES MADE according to Customers own formulas. 



82 & 84, OLD STREET, 

LONDON, E.G. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE STRAD" LIBRARY. 



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The Violin: Sole Playing, Soloists and Solos. By 

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Selected Violin Solos, and How to Play Them. 

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ML 

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F68 

1911 

C.I 

MUSI 




UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



EDWARD JOHNSON 
MUSIC LIBRARY